NPRE 475

Dr. Magdi Ragheb

Spring 2023




  1. Incomplete List of Teachers Ranked as Excellent by Their Students 1998
  2. Incomplete List of Teachers Ranked as Excellent by Their Students 2000
  3. Advisor's list 2003.

Assignments and Teaching Assistants

        Assignments will account for 40 percent of the final grade.

Assignments  Policy and Guidelines

In case of "Internet Rationing" or collapse, final grade will be based on received assignments and on tests taken.

List of assignments Word

List of assignments, pdf

Recorded Lecture Notes
Lecture 1

Lecture 2
1. Introduction
Lecture 3
1. Introduction
Lecture 4
1. Introduction
Lecture 5
2. Global Wind Power Status
3. USA Wind Energy Resources


NPRE 475 Spring 2023 First Midterm.
During class period, Friday, February 24

NPRE 475 Spring 2023 Second Midterm.
During class period, Monday, March 27

NPRE 475 Spring 2023 Third Exam.
Monday May 8, 7-10 pm

Teaching Assistant Information
Course Outline

Course University Review


CS 101, or MATH 241 or MATH 380, one of: CHBE 421, ECE 110, ECE 205, ME310, TAM 335


Undergraduates: 3 units.

Graduates: 3 units + 1  unit with term paper or special project, for a total of 4 units.



Two midterm tests and one final test are scheduled.

Each will account for 20 percent of the final grade for a total of 60 percent of the final grade.

Assignments, quizzes (unannounced), final project, 40 percent. Attendance receives up to 20 extra credit points.

Calendar for Spring Semester, 2023

Room 114 Transportation Building

Face-to-face synchronous meetings with required attendance

2:00-2:50 pm, MWF


Martin Luther King Jr. Day Monday, January 16 (No classes)
Instruction begins Tuesday January 17
Spring Break begins Saturday March 11
Instruction resumes Monday March 20
Instruction ends Wednesday May 3
Reading day Thursday May 4
Final Examinations Begin Friday, May 5
Final Examinations End Friday, May 12

First Midterm exam

Friday, February 24

Second Midterm exam

Monday, March 27

Final Exam

Monday May 8, 7-10 pm


Book Chapters

Magdi Ragheb (2017), "Economics of Wind Power Generation," Chap. 25, Part VI, Financial Modeling/Wind Economics, pp. 537 -554, in: Trevor M. Letcher, Ed., "Wind Energy Engineering, A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines," Academic Press, Elsevier, 2017.

Magdi Ragheb (2017), "History of Harnessing Wind Power," Chap. 7, Part III, Wind Turbine Technology, pp. 127 - 142, in: Trevor M. Letcher, Ed., "Wind Energy Engineering, A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines," Academic Press, Elsevier, 2017.

Magdi Ragheb and Adam M. Ragheb (2011). "Wind Turbines Theory - The Betz Equation and Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio,"
 Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power, Rupp Carriveau (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-508-2,

Adam M. Ragheb and Magdi Ragheb (2011). "Wind Turbine Gearbox Technologies,"
Fundamental and Advanced Topics in Wind Power, Rupp Carriveau (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-508-2,


© M. Ragheb
Intellectual Property IP

Harvesting the Wind

© M. Ragheb


1. Introduction
2. Global Wind Power Status
3. USA Wind Energy Resources
4. Properties and Statistical Analysis of the Wind
5. Wind Generators History
6. Wind Shear, Roughness Classes and Turbine Energy Production
7. Fluid Mechanics, Euler and Bernoulli Equations
8. Aerodynamics of Rotor Blades
9. Energy and Power Content of the Wind
10. Wind Energy Conversion Theory, Betz Equation
11. Torque Generation in Wind Turbines
12. Optimal Rotor Tip Speed Ratio
13. Components of Wind Machines
14. Orography and Wind Turbine Siting
15. Offshore Wind Farms Siting
16. Airborne Wind Turbine Concepts
17. Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
18. Small Wind Generators
19. Modern Wind Generators
20. Wind Turbines in the Urban Environment
21. Dynamic and Structural Loading in Wind Turbines
22. Fatigue Loading in Wind Turbines
23. Wind Energy Converters Concepts
24. Control of Wind Turbines
25. Computational Fluid Dynamics
26. Random Numbers Generation
27. Direct Simulation or Analog Monte Carlo
28. Monte Carlo Simulation of Fluid Flow
29. Structural Towers
30. Historical Wind Generators Machines
31. Environmental Considerations
32. Licensing Policy of Wind Power Systems
33. Legal Considerations of Wind Power Generation
34. Economics of Wind Energy
35. Wind Project Development and Financing
36. Electrical Generation and Grid System Integration
37. Safety of Wind Systems
38. Risk and Safety Ethics
39. Wind Power for a Mars Mission
40. Energy Storage with Wind Power
41. Radar Signatures of Wind Turbines
42. High Voltage Direct Current for Wind Power
43. Sustainable Global Energy Desertec Concept
44. Smart Electrical Grid and Metering
45. Similarity, Scaling and Model Testing
46. Rents, Royalties, Easements and Land Values
47. Global Climatic Variation and Energy Use
48. Political Aspects of Wind Power
49. Natural Gas as a Bridge Fuel to Renewables
50. Energy Hydrogenation and Decarbonization
51. Powerwall and Powerpack Tesla Batteries
52. Wind Turbines Gearbox Technologies
53. Decommissioning Wind Turbines


I.       Greek Prefixes
II.      Abbreviations
III.    Conversion Factors and Physical Constants
IV.    Wind Class definition, USA
V.      Beaufort Wind Speed Scale
VI.     Air density at Standard Temperature and Pressure
VII.   Wind Power
VIII.  Roughness Classes and Roughness Length, EU
IX.     Carbon Dioxide Emissions
X.      Energy Content of Different Fuels
XI.    Tacoma Narrows Bridge
XII    Smith Putman Historical Wind Turbine
XIII  Vector Relations


Yankee Ridge Wind Park Project
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) Wind Turbine Construction Project, Video
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) Wind Turbine Construction Project, Photos

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Electrolyzer for Hydrogen Energy storage
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) Wind Turbine Project
Helical Savonius Wind Turbine Construction
Economics spreadsheet calculator

Gradute papers

Spring 2021

Raymond Casimir Trelka, "Hardening Wind Turbines against Extreme weather Phenomena"
Aanchal Gupta, "Counter Rotating Wind Turbines"
Kishan Samir Patel,  "Increased Trend Towards Offshore Wind Farms"

Related Courses Information

       NPRE402/ME405  Nuclear Power Engineering

       NPRE457/CSE462 Safety Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Systems

       NPRE490MC(NPRE456/CSE416) Monte Carlo Simulations

       NPRE475 Wind Power Systems

       NPRE590SF Nuclear and Radiological Safety

       NPRE459/CSE417 Fuzzy Logic and its Applications


Wide Web Links

Climbing and descending a wind turbine safely:
Wind Power, the Truth:

Home Wind Turbines, Pros and Cons:
Kite Power Systems :
Kite Power Solutions, The New Way of harnessing Wind Energy:
Explaining the two directions kite motor flip flop hub:
The Search for a high flying clean energy generator:
Tunisia, Revolutionary bladeless wind turbine could change game in wind farms:

Aerogenerateur BSB, The Wind turbine of the future:
Sky Wolf Wind Turbine Animation 2014:
Ultra Lw Wind Speed HAWT Turbine Blade:
Windtrap,a new wind turbine:
A New Direction in Wind Power:
A Different Kind of Wind Power:

New Wind Energy Technology:
Windjuicer a new wind power technology:
The 800 percent efficient Robert Adams motor generator:

How do vortex generators work:
Quadcopter view of Wind Turbines:

Global Wind Energy Council:

American Wind Energy Association:

British Wind Energy Association:

European Wind Energy Association:

The Canadian Wind Energy Association:

The Irish Wind Energy Association:

General Electric Wind Energy:

US Department of Energy Wind and Hydropower Program:

Finnish Wind Power Association:

Minnessota Wind Energy Information Index Page:

Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Greece:

Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands:

German Wind Energy Institute:

National Wind Technology Center, USA:

Risø National Laboratory, Denmark:
The European Renewable Energy Centres Agency, Brussels:
Illinois Rural Electric Cooperative:
U.S. Department of Energy / Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:
DSIRE /  Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy:
SERC / State Environmental Resource Center / RPS Info Center:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL):
AWEA / American Wind Energy Association:
20% Wind Energy by 2030:
U.S. Department of Energy, Wind Powering America:
NREL / National Renewable Energy Lab / Wind:
CWEC / California Wind Energy Collaborative:
California Government Energy Home Page:
CEC / California Energy Commission:
AWEA / Small Wind Section:

NREL / National Renewable Energy Lab / Wind Maps:
NREL / Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the United States:
EERE / Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy / Calif. Wind Map:
North American Wind Power:
WindTech International:
Clean Edge / The Clean Tech Market Authority:
Renewable Energy Access:
Interstate Renewable Energy Council:
California CleanTech:
Emerging Energy Research:
Energy Central:
Energy Central EnergyBiz Newsletter:
Windustry / Wind Farmers Network:
Windustry / Small Wind Turbine Manufacturers:

NREL / PV Watts:

American Vision Windows:


Related Courses Information

       NPRE441 Principles of Radiation Protection

       NPRE590SF Nuclear and Radiological Safety

       NPRE459/CSE417 Fuzzy Logic and its Applications

       NPRE457/CSE462 Safety Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Systems

       NPRE490M(NPRE456/CSE416) Monte Carlo Simulations


Please contact Dr. M. Ragheb as a Webmaster at: (217)333-6569 with any feedback concerning this page.

Last update for this page was on 1/25/2023